Spiritual Glossary

This glossary provides the English translations of the Gujarati spiritual words and terms used in Akram Vignan. It is a basic resource to assist those wish to understand the Gujarati words, some of which have multiple meanings in English depending on the context in which they are originally written or spoken. While referring to these English translations, if you feel there is any contradiction or discrepancy, then it is the mistake of the translators and the understanding of the matter should be clarified with the living Gnani to avoid misinterpretation.

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  • aachaar (આચાર)

    conduct

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  • aachaar samhita (આચારસંહિતા)

    code of conduct

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  • aacharya (આચાર્ય)

    a religious teacher; Self-realized master; those who observe the principles laid down by the Arihants and who teach others to do the same. Acharyas have complete knowledge of the scriptures and they have absorbed it. They are with saiyam, or free of anger-pride-deceit-greed; high ranking Jain monk

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  • aadai (આડાઈ)

    obstinacy

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  • aadarsh vyavahaar (આદર્શ વ્યવહાર)

    ideal worldly interaction; pure worldly interaction

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  • aadey naamkarma (આદેય નામકર્મ)

    respect or honor bearing name-form karma

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  • aadeymaan (આદેયમાન)

    one who commands respect in all aspects

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  • aadhaar (આધાર)

    Support; basis

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  • aadhi (આધિ)

    Mental suffering

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  • aadhin (આધીન)

    Subservient; submissive. Also means subject to, dependent upon, under the control of.

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  • aadhinta (આધીનતા)

    Total surrender; to yield; submission

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  • aadhi-vyadhi-upadhi (આધિ-વ્યાધિ-ઉપાધિ)

    mental, physical, and emotional anguish; mental, physical, and externally-induced reactions

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  • aadhyatmik jagruti (આધ્યાત્મિક જાગૃતિ)

    Spiritual awareness

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  • aadhyatmik shakti (આધ્યાત્મિક શક્તિ)

    Energy of the Self

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  • aadi ant (આદિ અંત)

    with a beginning and an end

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  • aaghaat naamkarma (આઘાત નામકર્મ)

    name-form karma that makes one inflict injury on oneself

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  • aagrah (આગ્રહ)

    Insistence

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  • aagrahi (આગ્રહી)

    adamant; one who is insistent on a viewpoint

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  • aakaar (આકાર)

    shape; form

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  • aakash (આકાશ)

    that which gives space; space; open space; eternal element of Space; the element that gives space to all

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  • aakash kshetra (આકાશ ક્ષેત્ર)

    space in this world

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  • aakash tattva (આકાશ તત્ત્વ)

    the element of Space

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  • aakulta (આકુળતા)

    unsettled

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  • aakulta-vyaakulta (આકુળતા-વ્યાકુળતા)

    disturbances in the non-Self; state of uneasiness-agitation

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  • badhak (બાધક)

    Hindrance; obstruction; detrimental

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  • bahiratma (બહિરાત્મા)

    the self that seeks worldly pleasures; worldly self; also known as bahirmukhi atma

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  • bahirbhaav (બહિર્ભાવ)

    a state that is not inherently One’s own; a state that is external to the Self

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  • bahirmukhi (બહિર્મુખી)

    directed towards the external; outward-facing; externally-facing; vision directed towards 'I am Chandubhai'

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  • bahirmukhi atma (બહિર્મુખી આત્મા)

    the worldly-interacting self; the self that is going towards the relative; the self that seeks worldly pleasures; worldly self; also known as bahiratma

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  • bahirmukhi pad (બહિર્મુખી પદ)

    the state in which the I prevails as ‘I am Chandubhai’

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  • bahusyam (બહુસ્યામ)

    more forms keep arising; endless visible forms

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  • bahya bhaav (બાહ્યભાવ)

    External intent; worldly intention

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  • bahya buddhi (બાહ્યબુદ્ધિ)

    External intellect

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  • bahyachaar (બાહ્યાચાર)

    external conduct

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  • bahyakaran (બાહ્યકરણ)

    the external instruments of the mind, speech, and body

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  • bahyapuja (બાહ્યપૂજા)

    External worship

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  • bahyatapa (બાહ્યતપ)

    External penance

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  • Baldev (બળદેવ)

    the step brother of a Vasudev Lord who is one of the 63 Shalaka Purush

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  • bandh (બંધ)

    bond; binding (of karma); influx; undergo puran

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  • bandhan (બંધન)

    Bondage

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  • bandhpurvak ni nirjara (બંધપૂર્વકની નિર્જરા)

    is new karmic matter being bound whilst karma is discharging

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  • bangh (બાંગ)

    Muslim prayer ritual

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  • bapo (બાપો)

    Father figure; superior

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  • bava (બાવા)

    Those who renounce worldly life and live off alms; ascetic; monk; one who renounces worldly attachments

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  • bavapanu (બાવાપણું)

    Kashay-laden interaction

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  • bavo (as in Hu-bavo-Mangaldas) (બાવો)

    the one in whom the power of the self has been filled in; the one with all the wrong beliefs; the internal one with wrong beliefs and anger, pride, deceit and greed; the one with the mind-intellect-chit-ego; kashay-laden believer

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  • beavatari (બે અવતારી)

    A living being that has two lives that remain before attaining liberation

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  • bebhaan (બેભાન)

    unaware; to lose awareness as the Self; gross unawareness of the Self

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  • Chaitanya (ચૈતન્ય)

    the Self; the Knower and Seer

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  • chaitanya Parmatma (ચૈતન્ય પરમાત્મા)

    absolute Self having the property to Know and See

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  • Chaitanya shakti (ચૈતન્યશક્તિ)

    the energy of Knowing and Seeing

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  • Chaitanya swaroop (ચૈતન્યસ્વરૂપ)

    embodiment of the Self; in the form as the Self

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  • chaitanyabhaav (ચૈતન્યભાવ)

    filled with the intent of the self

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  • Chaitanyaghan (ચૈતન્યઘન)

    solid entity of Knowledge and Vision

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  • chaitanyaghan swaroopi (ચૈતન્યઘન સ્વરૂપી)

    in the form of solid, unbroken Knowledge and Vision

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  • Chaitanyapind (ચૈતન્યપીંડ)

    solid entity of Knowledge and Vision

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  • Chaitanyata (ચૈતન્યતા)

    the property of Knowing and Seeing

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  • chakra (ચક્ર)

    Spinning energy centers that serve as gateways for the flow of vital force within the body; refers to wheels of energy throughout the body in yoga, meditation, and Ayurveda

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  • Chakravarti (ચક્રવર્તી)

    the emperor of six continents

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  • chanchal (ચંચળ)

    transitory; unsteady; impatient; agitated; restless; active; moving

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  • chanchalata (ચંચળતા)

    Restlessness

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  • Chandubhai (Chandulal, Chandu) (ચંદુભાઈ (ચંદુલાલ,ચંદુ))

    Term used by Dadashri to refer to the relative self

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  • charam dasha (ચરમ દશા)

    Final life before moksha; the life in which final liberation is attained

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  • charam deha (ચરમ દેહ)

    the final body a living being has before attaining final liberation. Also known as charam sharir.

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  • charam sharir (ચરમ શરીર)

    the final body a living being has before attaining final liberation. Also known as charam deha.

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  • charam shariri (ચરમ શરીરી)

    the One having a final body before attaining ultimate liberation

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  • Charan Vidhi (ચરણ વિધિ )

    spiritual booklet for mahatmas to sustain awareness after attainment of Gnan; prayers that increase awareness as the Self

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  • charanaravinda (ચરણારવિંદ (ચરણાર્વિંદ))

    Lotus feet

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  • charit (ચરિત)

    charged

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  • charitra (ચારિત્ર)

    conduct; worldly conduct; character; chaste conduct. Also known as charitrya

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  • Charitra (ચારિત્ર)

    the Conduct as the Self

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  • charitra moha (ચારિત્ર મોહ)

    discharge illusory attachment (moha); the discharging illusory attachment (moha) that persists even after the belief that ‘I am Chandubhai’ is dispelled; also known as vartan moha

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  • daan antaray (દાનાંતરાય)

    obstacles in receiving and giving charity

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  • Dada Bhagwan (દાદા ભગવાન)

    Fully enlightened Lord within the Gnani Purush; the absolute Self within all living beings

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  • dakhaadakh (ડખાડખ)

    interference and counter interference

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  • dakhal (ડખલ)

    interference effects caused by the ego in the unfolding of karma; the effects of the interference

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  • dakho (ડખો)

    interference of the ego in unfolding karma; to interfere; interference

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  • dakho-dakhal (ડખોડખલ)

    Interference and its effects caused by the ego in the unfolding of karma

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  • daladar (દળદર)

    state of misery arising out of ignorance of the Self

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  • darasal Atma (દરઅસલ આત્મા)

    the Real Self

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  • Darshan (દર્શન)

    the Vision as the Self; Vision; the property of Vision, understanding, belief

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  • darshan (દર્શન)

    relative vision; to pay respect. Also means understanding, belief. Also means devotional viewing of God; devotional viewing of an idol in a temple; the belief of the self; live connection with an enlightened One through eye contact

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  • Darshan avaran (દર્શન આવરણ)

    Vision-obscuring veils

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  • Darshan kriya (દર્શન ક્રિયા)

    Activity of the Self to See; activity of Seeing; Darshan upayog

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  • darshan moha (દર્શન મોહ)

    The conviction that ‘I am Chandubhai’

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  • darshan mohaniya (દર્શન મોહનીય)

    Karma that gives rise to the binding of new karma due to the illusory attachment that has arisen out of the wrong belief that ‘I am Chandubhai’; charge moha; causes moha; mithyatva

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  • Darshan upayog (દર્શન ઉપયોગ)

    the application of the Vision as the Self

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  • darshanantaray (દર્શનાંતરાય)

    obstruction against attaining right Vision

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  • Darshanavaran (દર્શનાવરણ)

    veil over the Vision of the Self; Vision obscuring veils

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  • darshanavaran karma (દર્શનાવરણ કર્મ)

    Vision-obscuring karma; also known as darshanavaraniya karma

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  • darshanavaraniya karma (દર્શનાવરણીય કર્મ)

    Vision-obscuring karma; also known as darshanavaran karma

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  • Darshanshakti (દર્શનશક્તિ)

    energy of Vision as the Self

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  • deha dharma (દેહધર્મ)

    Functions of the body, such as eating, cleansing, fasting, and so on

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  • deha ma atmabuddhi (દેહમાં આત્મબુદ્ધિ)

    the intellect that makes one [developing I] believe that I am the body/relative self

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  • deha mandir (દેહ મંદિર)

    sacred bodily form

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  • dehabhimaan (દેહાભિમાન)

    belief that ‘I am the doer and I am this body’; pride for one's self

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  • ekagra dhyan (એકાગ્ર ધ્યાન)

    Focused attention, focused meditation

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  • ekantik (એકાંતિક)

    Single-minded; single vision; narrow-minded perspective; individualized perspective; adherence to one’s own truth; partial; adhering to a single viewpoint

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  • ekantvaad (એકાંતવાદ)

    Absolute doctrine

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  • ekavatari (એકાવતારી)

    a person for whom one more life remains before attaining final or ultimate liberation; one who will attain final or ultimate liberation after just one more life

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  • ekavataripad (એકાવતારીપદ)

    a state whereby only one more life remains before final or ultimate liberation

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  • ekchit (એકચિત્ત)

    Chit concentrated and focused in only one place; complete concentration; chit is focused only on the Self

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  • ekendriya jeev (એકેન્દ્રિય જીવ)

    one-sensed organism

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  • ekoham bahusyam (એકોહમ્ બહુસ્યામ)

    May I, the One, become many; refers to the Vedic notion that divine will was the cause of the manifestation of the universe

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  • faraj (ફરજ)

    duty

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  • farajiyat (ફરજિયાત)

    Mandatory; compulsory; duty bound

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  • file (ફાઈલ)

    all interactions of worldly life are due to karmic accounts and are considered ‘files’ after Gnan; Dadashri’s special term for karmic accounts that take one away from the Self and into worldly life

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  • five Agna (પાંચ આજ્ઞા)

    five special directives given by the Gnani Purush after Gnan Vidhi; Gnani’s instructions that sustain the enlightened state after the Gnan Vidhi; five directives that preserve the awareness as the Self in Akram Vignan; the five fundamental sentences

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  • gaadh samkit (ગાઢ સમકિત)

    Absolute conviction that ‘I am pure Soul’

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  • gaanth (ગાંઠ)

    Karmic tuber; knot

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  • gal (ગલ)

    returning; giving off the effect

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  • galan (ગલન)

    discharge; outflux; output; emptying out; emptying; dissipation; withdrawing

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  • gamo (ગમો)

    liking, fondness

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  • Ganadhar (ગણધર)

    Principle disciple of a Tirthankar Lord

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  • gandh (ગંધ)

    smell

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  • garavata (ગારવતા)

    To wallow in worldly pleasures; to wallow in and remain stuck in worldly comforts

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  • garva (ગર્વ)

    Ego of doership; subtle pride of doership

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  • garvaras (ગર્વરસ)

    Indulgence in the pleasure that arises from doership

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  • gati (ગતિ)

    life-form; realm of existence; one of the four life-forms in which the soul wanders: (1) Dev gati – the celestial life-form (2) Nark gati - life-form in hell, (3) Manushya gati - human life-form, and (4) Tiryanch gati - the life-form that includes all one to five sensed living beings except humans

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  • gatisahayak tattva (ગતિસહાયક તત્ત્વ)

    the eternal element that supports motion; one of the six eternal elements. Also known as dharmastikaya.

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  • ghamand (ઘમંડ)

    Arrogance; conceit

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  • ghan (ઘન)

    Unbroken and dense; a continuous solid in which there is no void, no porosity

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  • ghanghaati (ઘનઘાતી)

    very dense and destructive

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  • ghati (ઘાતી)

    Destroyer; destructive

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  • ghati karma (ઘાતીકર્મ)

    karma which veil or obscure the essential nature of the pure Self; karma that are destructive to the state as the Self; categorized as knowledge-obscuring karma (gnanavaraniya), vision-obscuring karma (darshanavaraniya), deluding karma (mohaniya), obstructive karma (antaray).

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  • ghemaraji (ઘેમરાજી)

    Pompous display without any substance; sense of pride and smugness

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  • ghruna bhaav (ઘૃણા ભાવ)

    feeling of contempt

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  • Gnaat Pita (જ્ઞાતપિતા)

    Father or giver of the ultimate Knowledge

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  • Gnaatputra (જ્ઞાતપુત્ર)

    receiver of the ultimate Knowledge

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  • Gnan (જ્ઞાન)

    Knowledge of the Self attained through Self-realization; the Knowledge of the Self and the doer given in the Gnan vidhi; Knowledge of the Self; Knowledge

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  • gnan (જ્ઞાન)

    relative knowledge; knowledge; worldly knowledge

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  • Gnan bhaav (જ્ઞાનભાવ)

    Right belief of ‘I am pure Soul’

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  • haav (હાવ)

    external activity through mind-speech-body

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  • hathagrah (હઠાગ્રહ)

    stubborn insistence; to obstinately insist on something

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  • hathyog (હઠયોગ)

    practices done with ego

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  • hatpunyashali (હત્પુણ્યશાળી)

    someone with inadequate merit karma

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  • heya (હેય)

    worthy of being relinquished; worthy of rejection

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  • himsa (હિંસા)

    Violence; injury; hurt; transgression towards any living being through thought, speech, or action

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  • himsak bhaav (હિંસકભાવ (હિંસક ભાવ))

    Violent intent; intent to hurt someone

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  • himsak kala (હિંસક કળા)

    violent art

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  • hisaab (હિસાબ)

    Karmic account

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  • hoonf (હૂંફ)

    Security

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  • hu (હું)

    developing I; the I

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  • Hu (હું)

    the 'I'; the Self; the original Self

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  • hum (હમ)

    Belief that ‘I am something’; ‘I-ness’ with ego

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  • hupad (હુંપદ)

    I-ness; the state of the developing I

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  • hupanu (હુંપણું)

    the sense of ‘I-ness’; I-ness; the prevalence of the I; the I that prevails in the relative

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  • Hupanu (હુંપણું)

    the prevalence of the ‘I’

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  • indriya (ઇન્દ્રિય)

    Sense organ; five sensory and five reactive organs

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  • indriya atma (ઇન્દ્રિય આત્મા)

    the physical self which is ‘effective’ through the sense organs; the physical body; Mangaldas

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  • indriya drashti (ઈન્દ્રિય દ્રષ્ટિ)

    sense organ based vision

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  • indriya gnan (ઇન્દ્રિય જ્ઞાન)

    information obtained from the sense organs; relative and sense-oriented knowledge; the knowledge attained through the medium of the sense organs and the intellect

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  • indriya gnanpanu (ઈન્દ્રિય જ્ઞાનપણું)

    the function of knowing through the sense organs

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  • indriya jaanpanu (ઈન્દ્રિય જાણપણું)

    the function of knowing through the sense organs

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  • indriya pratyaksh (ઇન્દ્રિય પ્રત્યક્ષ)

    Sense-oriented; directly perceived by the senses

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  • indriya sukh (ઇન્દ્રિય સુખ)

    pleasure derived from the senses; pleasures derived from worldly or material things as perceived by the five sense organs

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  • indriyagamya (ઇન્દ્રિયગમ્ય)

    known through the senses; that which can be understood or perceived through the five sense organs

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  • iryapathiki kriya (ઈર્યાપથિકિ ક્રિયા)

    to walk with extreme caution so as not to hurt any living being (in the Kramik path)

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  • Jaananaar (જાણનાર)

    the One who Knows

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  • Jaananaaro (જાણનારો)

    the Knower

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  • Jaanavu (જાણવું)

    to Know

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  • Jaane (જાણે)

    to Know

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  • Jaanpanu (જાણપણું)

    function of Knowing

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  • Jaanvar gati (જાનવરગતિ)

    animal life-form

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  • jaanyu (જાણ્યું)

    to know

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  • jaati (જાતિ)

    Caste; gender

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  • jada (જડ)

    inanimate; insentient; non-Self; lifeless; inanimate matter; non-living; eternal element of inanimate matter; an inanimate object; also known as pardravya or Pudgal Parmanu. Also means lacking sensitivity, impervious, inhumane.

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  • jada bhaav (જડ ભાવ)

    the intent of the non-Self; the intents that are lifeless

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  • jada dasha (જડ દશા)

    state of spiritual ignorance

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  • jada gnan (જડ જ્ઞાન)

    inanimate knowledge; knowledge that does not produce results; relative knowledge

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  • jada kriya (જડ ક્રિયા)

    the activities of the inanimate

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  • jada Parmanu (જડ પરમાણુ)

    the smallest, most indivisible, indestructible particles of the eternal element of inanimate matter

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  • jada Pudgal Parmanu (જડ પુદ્‌ગલ પરમાણુ)

    the smallest, most indivisible, indestructible particles of the eternal element of inanimate matter

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  • jada shakti (જડ શક્તિ)

    inanimate energy; non-living energy

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  • jada tattva (જડ તત્ત્વ)

    the eternal element of inanimate matter

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  • jada vastu (જડ વસ્તુ)

    inanimate matter

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  • jadadhara (જડધારા)

    the track of inanimate matter

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  • jadadhoop (જડધૂપ)

    pulling of subatomic particles

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  • jadapanu (જડપણું)

    ignorance

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  • jagat kalyan (જગતકલ્યાણ)

    Salvation of the world

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  • jagatsaar (જગતસાર)

    Essence of the world

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  • jagrut (જાગૃત)

    aware as the Self; awakened as the Self; to have come into the awakened awareness as the Self. Also means alert, waking state.

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  • kaal (કાળ)

    time used in the relative; relative time; time in the relative sense; era of the time cycle

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  • Kaal (કાળ)

    the eternal element of Time; Real Time; Time

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  • Kaal tattva (કાળ તત્ત્વ)

    eternal element of Time

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  • kaalanu (કાળાણુ)

    atom of Time

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  • kaalatit (કાળાતીત)

    beyond Time

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  • kaaran deha (કારણ દેહ)

    causal body; also known as kaaran sharir, kaarman sharir

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  • kaaran prakruti (કારણ પ્રકૃતિ)

    causal prakruti

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  • kaaran sarvagnya (કારણ સર્વજ્ઞ)

    the one who creates causes to become sarvagnya, the Knower of all eternal elements

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  • kaaran sharir (કારણ શરીર)

    causal body; a new subtle body created in ignorance during the process of discharging of past karma; also known as kaaran deha, kaarman sharir

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  • kaarman sharir (કાર્મણ શરીર)

    causal body; also known as kaaran sharir, kaaran deha

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  • kaarman vargana (કાર્મણ વર્ગણા)

    cluster of karmic particles

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  • kaarunyata (કારુણ્યતા)

    unconditional, constant compassion

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  • kadagrah (કદાગ્રહ)

    Insisting on one’s belief knowing that it is wrong

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  • kadhapo (કઢાપો)

    outburst that hurts others; visible anger; visible outbursts

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  • kaivalya (કૈવલ્ય)

    Absoluteness; the absolute state

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  • Kaliyug (કળિયુગ)

    an era of the time cycle characterized predominantly by misery, and almost no happiness; the current era of the time cycle characterized by a lack of unity in thought, speech, and action; an era of moral and spiritual decline characterized mainly by misery; also known as Dushamkaal

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  • kalp (કલ્પ)

    one complete revolution of the time cycle comprising 12 time periods, six of which are ascending and six of which are descending; the [worldly-interacting] self

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  • Kalp (કલ્પ)

    the Self

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  • kalpana (કલ્પના)

    intent based imagination; conception; fantasy; imagination

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  • kalpant (કલ્પાંત)

    Lamentation; crying and weeping

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  • kalpavu (કલ્પવું)

    to create through envisioning

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  • kalpit (કલ્પિત)

    Imagined; imaginary; transient

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  • kalpit sukh (કલ્પિત સુખ)

    projected happiness; imagined happiness; transient happiness

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  • kalpshakti (કલ્પશક્તિ)

    energy or property of envisioning of the Self

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  • laalach (લાલચ)

    covetousness; greed-laden temptation; allurement; intense greed; insatiable greed

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  • laalachu (લાલચુ)

    an intensely greedy person; insatiably greedy

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  • labdhi (લબ્ધિ)

    Achievement; the act of acquiring, especially in reference to knowledge or mental attributes; the expression/manifestation of the sense due to the partial destruction, subsidence of the knowledge-obscuring karma relating to that sense

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  • labhantaray (લાભાંતરાય)

    Obstruction in profits

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  • lafru (લફરું)

    Something that possesses a person; impediment; extra baggage; anything that sticks on to people and possesses them; affair; botheration; illicit relationship

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  • laghu (લઘુ)

    humble

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  • laghutam (laghuttam) (લઘુતમ (લઘુત્તમ))

    Smallest of the small; the lowliest and lightest in the relative; humble disposition

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  • laghutam bhaav (laghuttam bhaav) (લઘુતમભાવ (લઘુત્તમભાવ))

    humblest of intent; a sense of being the smallest of the small

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  • laghutar (લઘુતર)

    humbler

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  • laksh (લક્ષ)

    (Real sense) awakened awareness (as the Self); awakened awareness of ‘I am pure Soul’; (relative sense) to pay heed to; to give consideration to

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  • laukik (લૌકિક)

    Worldly; relative; mundane

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  • laukik aishwarya (લૌકિક ઐશ્વર્ય)

    worldly energy and prosperity

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  • laukik dharma (લૌકિક ધર્મ)

    Worldly religion; traditional or relative religion

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  • laukik drashti (લૌકિક દ્રષ્ટિ)

    worldly viewpoint; common viewpoint; worldly perspective

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  • laukik gnan (લૌકિક જ્ઞાન)

    relative or worldly knowledge

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  • laya (લય)

    dissolution; extinction; end; dissipation

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  • leehat (લીહટ)

    one who has lost his power of critical thinking; thick skinned

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  • lepayamaan (લેપાયમાન)

    the state of being covered; coated; anointed

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  • lepayamaan bhaav (લેપાયમાન ભાવ)

    intents that tend to anoint

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  • lepeet (લેપીત)

    to believe that the intents that tend to anoint are one’s own

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  • leshya (લેશ્યા)

    the aura or coloring of the soul based on its association with the karmic matter or based on one’s internal state of being

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  • lingadeha (લિંગદેહ)

    bhaavkarma; charge karma

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  • lobh (લોભ)

    Greed

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  • lobh kashay (લોભ કષાય)

    inner enemy of greed; greed

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  • maadakata (માદકતા)

    Intoxication of the ego; an intoxicated state

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  • maal (માલ)

    stock of karma

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  • maan (માન)

    Pride; recognition; validation; respect

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  • maanak (માનક)

    that which causes/instigates pride to arise

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  • maanav dharma (માનવધર્મ)

    the practice of humanity; humanity; to place yourself in another's shoes

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  • maanav swabhaav (માનવ સ્વભાવ)

    human nature

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  • maani (માની)

    a pride-filled person; full of pride; laden with heavy self-importance and pride

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  • maanipanu (માનીપણું)

    belief and prevalence in pride

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  • maansik anand (માનસિક આનંદ)

    mental happiness

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  • maansik vedana (માનસિક વેદના)

    mental suffering

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  • maardavata (માર્દવતા)

    Tenderness; softness

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  • mada (મદ)

    intoxicated pride

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  • madadaal (મડદાલ)

    lifeless; discharge

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  • Madhyalok (મધ્યલોક)

    The plane of existence of humans, animals, plants, and other life-forms; middle world

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  • Magadhi language (માગધી ભાષા)

    Language spoken during the time of Lord Mahavir 2500 years ago; language of ancient Jain scriptures; an ancient Prakrut language of Magadha

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  • Mahadevji (મહાદેવજી)

    Lord Shiva; the enlightened One; the One who swallows all the poisons and bitterness of the world without any complaints or retaliation; the one who swallows bitterness from others while simultaneously blessing them

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  • mahamoha (મહામોહ)

    Large amount of illusory attachment

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  • maha-mohaniya karma (મહા-મોહનીય કર્મ)

    Greatly-deluding karma

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  • mahamukta (મહામુક્ત)

    absolutely free

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  • mahasati (મહાસતી)

    (real sense) also known as mool sati, refers to the 16 mahasati of this regressive half of the time cycle and who were mostly married women of high moral conduct who completely followed the vow (vrat) of fidelity to their husband without any mistake. (relative sense) Jain female monk

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  • mahatma (મહાત્મા)

    Self-realized Ones in Akram Vignan; those who have received Self-realization through Gnan Vidhi

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  • Mahavideh Kshetra (મહાવિદેહ ક્ષેત્ર)

    one of the three locations in the universe where human beings reside (the other two are Bharat Kshetra and Airavat Kshetra) and where the current living Tirthankar Lord Simandhar Swami resides. Living Tirthankar Lords always exist in Mahavideh Kshetra, so it is always possible for living beings to attain final/ultimate liberation from there.

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  • Mahavir jayanti (મહાવીર જયંતી)

    Birth anniversary of Lord Mahavir

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  • Mahavir Swami (Mahavir Bhagwan, Bhagwan Mahavir Swami) (મહાવીર સ્વામી (મહાવીર ભગવાન, ભગવાન મહાવીર સ્વામી))

    Lord Mahavir, the twenty-fourth Tirthankar of the current half-cycle of time who introduced the five great vows, or Mahavrat.

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  • naad brahma (નાદબ્રહ્મ)

    sound of Brahma; divine sound

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  • naam jaap (નામજાપ)

    chanting of a name

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  • naam nikshep (નામ નિક્ષેપ)

    identifying someone based on the name given

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  • naam roop karma (નામરૂપ કર્મ)

    name-form determining karma

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  • naam smaran (નામ સ્મરણ)

    recitation of a name of God

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  • naam sthapana (નામ સ્થાપના)

    establishment of name

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  • naamdhaari (નામધારી)

    the one who possesses a name

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  • naamkarma (નામકર્મ)

    name-form determining karma; karma that determine the type of body occupied by the Soul

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  • nabhi pradesh (નાભિપ્રદેશ)

    eight pradesh (smallest amount of space that a single parmanu occupies on the Soul) located in the navel region

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  • naimittik (નૈમિત્તિક)

    instrumental; apparent doer; passed on through an instrument; evidentiary; one of many evidences; through evidences; existing based on evidences

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  • naimittik bhaav (નૈમિત્તિક ભાવ)

    the state as an evidentiary doer

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  • naimittik kaaran (નૈમિત્તિક કારણ)

    evidentiary/instrumental cause

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  • naimittik purusharth (નૈમિત્તિક પુરુષાર્થ)

    evidence-based effort; evidential effort

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  • naishthik achaurya (નૈષ્ઠિક અચૌર્ય)

    inner intent of non-stealing

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  • naishthik brahmachari (નૈષ્ઠિક બ્રહ્મચારી)

    the One who has constant inner intent of devotion and sincerity towards celibacy of the mind, speech, and body

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  • Namaskaar Vidhi (નમસ્કાર વિધિ)

    the vidhi of salutations; a vidhi that consists of obeisances addressed to spiritually exalted beings as well as to all living beings in the world

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  • napunsak (નપુંસક)

    neither feminine nor masculine gender; neuter gender; bisexual

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  • napunsak ling (નપુંસક લિંગ)

    neuter

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  • napunsak ved (નપુંસક વેદ)

    sexual disposition of a bisexual

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  • narak (નરક)

    Hell; infernal region

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  • Narayan (નારાયણ)

    God; refers to one who has gone from being an ordinary human being to becoming God

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  • Nark gati (નર્કગતિ)

    life-form in hell

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  • natakiya (નાટકીય)

    as though acting in a drama with constant awareness as the Self

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  • nav kalamo (nine kalams) (નવ કલમો)

    nine statements in which one asks for energy to the pure Soul within for the highest spiritual intents

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  • ojas (ઓજસ)

    Spiritual energy generated when virya shakti rises to the brain

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  • olambo (ઓળંબો)

    a supporting example

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  • Om (ઓમ)

    Real viewpoint

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  • Om Parmeshthi (ઓમ પરમેષ્ઠિ)

    those who have gained entry on the path to liberation

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  • paanch Agna (પાંચ આજ્ઞા)

    Five special directives given by the Gnani Purush after Gnan Vidhi; Gnani’s instructions that sustain the enlightened state after the Gnan Vidhi; five directives that preserve the awareness as the Self in Akram Vignan

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  • paap (પાપ)

    Demerit karma; doing bad deeds

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  • paapachaar (પાપાચાર)

    bad deeds

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  • paapanubandhi paap (પાપાનુબંધી પાપ)

    Current demerit karma that creates new demerit karma; karmic effect of demerit karma of this life, which binds demerit karma for the next life

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  • paapanubandhi punya (પાપાનુબંધી પુણ્ય)

    In the process of enjoying all the comforts due to merit karma, new demerit karma is bound; karmic effect of merit karma of this life, which binds demerit karma for the next life

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  • pad (પદ)

    Status. Also means spiritual hymn; spiritual song; spiritual composition

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  • padakmanu (પડકમણું)

    Jain ritual of doing pratikraman

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  • pakad (પકડ)

    To hold onto (view point)

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  • pakshik pratikraman (પાક્ષિક પ્રતિક્રમણ)

    Fortnightly pratikraman; pratikraman that is done every fortnight in the Kramik path

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  • panch mahabhoot (પંચ મહાભૂત)

    according to ancient Indian philosophy, the five elements that are the basis of all cosmic creation: earth, water, fire, air, and space

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  • panch Parmeshthi (પંચ પરમેષ્ઠિ)

    five levels of enlightened beings, ranging from those who have attained Self-realization to those who have attained final liberation. They consist of: 1. Arihant - Fully enlightened living beings who have destroyed all inner weaknesses, 2. Siddha - Fully enlightened beings who have exhausted all karma and attained final liberation from the cycle of birth and death, 3. Acharya - Self-realized masters; those who observe the principles laid down by the Arihants and who teach others to do the same. Acharyas have complete knowledge of the scriptures and they have absorbed it. 4. Upadhyaay - Those who have attained Self-realization and help others do the same. They have knowledge about right conduct, but it has not yet fully come into conduct. 5. Sadhu - Those who have realized the Self and are in the process of studying the scriptures further.

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  • panchendriya jeev (પંચેન્દ્રિય જીવ)

    five-sensed living being; living being with the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing

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  • panchklesha (પંચક્લેશ)

    Five afflictions of a living being: ignorance, ego, attachment to pleasure, aversion to pain, and fear of death

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  • panchmahavratdhaari (પંચમહાવ્રતધારી)

    One who upholds the five great vows: truth (satya), non- possessiveness (aparigrah), non-violence (ahimsa), non-stealing (achaurya), and celibacy (brahmacharya)

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  • papsthanak (પાપસ્થાનક)

    Sources that lead to binding of demerit karma. They are divided into 18 categories.

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  • par (પર)

    Of the non-Self

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  • par prakashak (પરપ્રકાશક)

    Illuminates the non-Self

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  • par ramanata (પરરમણતા)

    dwelling in the non-Self; engulfed in the non-Self

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  • par swabhaav (પરસ્વભાવ)

    the inherent nature that is of the non-Self

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  • par swabhaav-bhaav (પરસ્વભાવ-ભાવ)

    the state as the non-Self

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  • para prakruti (પરા પ્રકૃતિ)

    the prakruti that is closer to the ‘I’, the mishrachetan; also known as pratyaksh prakruti

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  • paraashrit (પરાશ્રિત)

    dependent on other factors; dependent on something else

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  • paraatpar (પરાત્પર)

    the pure Knower-Seer

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  • paraatpar Chaitanya (પરાત્પર ચૈતન્ય)

    the eternal element of the Self

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R
  • raag (રાગ)

    Attachment

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  • raag kashay (રાગ કષાય)

    attachment

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  • raag parinaam (રાગ પરિણામ)

    the resulting attachment

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  • raag-dwesh (રાગ-દ્વેષ)

    Attachment and abhorrence

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  • raagi (રાગી)

    one who is prone to attachment

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  • rajipo (રાજીપો)

    To please

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  • rajyoga (રાજયોગ)

    Concentration of the mind; according to the Vedas, a path that leads to the Self by attuning the mind to God and truth through concentration and meditation

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  • rakshak dev-devi (રક્ષક દેવ-દેવી)

    protecting celestial beings

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  • ramanata (રમણતા)

    reminiscence; absorption; to dwell in; involvement. Also means devotion.

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  • ranjaymaanpanu (રંજાયમાનપણું)

    a state of engrossment in the explosive parmanu

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  • ras (રસ)

    intensity of belief of pain/pleasure; to derive interest/disinterest or pleasure/pain from something; liking; interest; taste

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  • raudra (રૌદ્ર)

    Inflicting pain on others; terrible; wrathful

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  • raudrabhaav (રૌદ્રભાવ)

    the intent to hurt oneself and others

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  • raudradhyan (રૌદ્રધ્યાન)

    Adverse internal state of being/meditation that hurts the self and others

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  • riddhi (રિદ્ધિ)

    Prosperity; wealth; riches

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  • risaal (રિસાળ)

    the one that gets upset and non-communicative; sulky; quick to take offense

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  • roonanubandh (ઋણાનુબંધ)

    bondage created due to attachment-abhorrence in the past life; past karmic ties or connection; bond of indebtedness contracted in previous lives (which form the cause of suffering and enjoyment in this life)

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  • roonanubandhi (ઋણાનુબંધી)

    Karmically connected

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  • roop (રૂપ)

    form; outer appearance

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  • roopak (રૂપક)

    That which comes into a concrete existence, materalizes; manifests as an effect; visible form

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  • roopi (રૂપી)

    with form; in the form of; to have a visible form

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  • roopi shakti (રૂપી શક્તિ)

    an energy that gives rise to many visible forms

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  • roopi tattva (રૂપી તત્ત્વ)

    the eternal element that has a visible form; the eternal element of inanimate matter

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  • roop-ras-gandh-sparsh (રૂપ-રસ-ગંધ-સ્પર્શ)

    form-taste-smell-texture

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S
  • sa-aadi (saadi) (સ-આદિ (સાદિ))

    Beginning of right vision; the beginning of right belief that ‘I am pure Soul’

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  • saakshibhaav (સાક્ષીભાવ)

    as a witness

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  • sa-anta (saanta) (સ-અંત (સાંત))

    the end of the right vision

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  • sabhaan avastha (સભાન અવસ્થા)

    State of consciousness

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  • sachar (સચર)

    Mobile; movable

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  • sacharachar (સચરાચર)

    All that is movable and inmovable

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  • sachetan (સચેતન)

    Animate; sentient

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  • sad upayog (સદ્ઉપયોગ)

    to put to good use; use appropriately

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  • sadgnan (સદ્જ્ઞાન)

    Good or right understanding in the relative sense

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  • sadguna (સદગુણ)

    virtue

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  • Sadguru (સદગુરુ)

    Self-realized spiritual teacher

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  • sadhak (સાધક)

    Spiritual aspirant; someone who follows a particular sadhana, or a way of life designed to attain liberation; someone who is on the path to liberation, a true seeker of liberation

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  • sadhan (સાધન)

    tools; religious tools; means; method; in the spiritual sense, may refer to scriptures, rituals, chants, penance, fasting, spiritual masters, satsang, and so on

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  • sadhana (સાધના)

    religious practices; undergoing self-discipline for spiritual development; spiritual practice; efforts of activity to accomplish a goal; spiritual endeavour; spiritual undertaking; spiritual aspiration

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  • sadhu (સાધુ)

    male ascetic; monk

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  • sadhvi (સાધ્વી)

    In the ordinary sense, refers to a female ascetic, nun. However, a true sadhvi is one who has realized the Self and is in the process of studying the scriptures further; one who lives and strives for only the state of the Self.

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  • sadhya (સાધ્ય)

    The ultimate goal

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  • sadvivek (સદ્ વિવેક)

    Good discretion

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  • sadvyavahaar (સદ્વ્યવહાર)

    good worldly interaction; worldly interaction in which no one else is hurt, one’s anger-pride-deceit-greed only hurt one’s self

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  • sahadhyaayi (સહાધ્યાયી)

    fellow spiritual colleague; fellow student; colleagues in seva

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  • sahaj (સહજ)

    Natural and spontaneous

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  • sahaj anand (સહજ આનંદ)

    Natural bliss

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  • sahaj Atma (સહજ આત્મા)

    the natural and spontaneous Self

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  • sahaj avastha (સહજ અવસ્થા)

    a natural and spontaneous phase

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  • taap (તાપ)

    blazing heat; intimidate; the energy of the one without kashay, which impresses and awes others; internal burning; respectful fear

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  • taaranhaar (તારણહાર)

    liberator

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  • tadaakaar (તદાકાર)

    To take on the form of the object of enjoyment in discharge, which leads to charging of new karma; when one becomes engrossed in the discharge karma and charge karma are formed

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  • tadaakaar bhaav (તદાકાર ભાવ)

    taking on the form as the pudgal whilst remaining totally separate from it

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  • tadatmya (તાદાત્મ્ય)

    To become one with the body and mind. Also known as tanmayakaar.

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  • tadroop (તદ્રૂપ)

    to become that form; to take on the form of an object of enjoyment; as it is

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  • taipho (તાયફો)

    Commotion or a scene one deliberately creates in the home in order to get what he/she wants

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  • takor (ટકોર)

    Cautionary hint

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  • tanbhed (તનભેદ)

    Physical separation

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  • tankotkirna (ટંકોત્કીર્ણ)

    Immiscible. Just as no matter how much oil and water are mixed, they never become a compound, they always remain as a mixture. So too, at the original, elemental level, the Self (Atma) and the non-Self (pudgal) do not become one. It is not possible for them to become one, because each original element is immiscible (tankotkirna) by its inherent nature. They only remain in the form of a mixture in the past, present, and future.

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  • tankotkirnavat (ટંકોત્કીર્ણવત્)

    Immiscible; immiscibility. Just as no matter how much oil and water are mixed, they never become a compound, they always remain as a mixture. So too, at the original, elemental level, the Self (Atma) and the non-Self (pudgal) do not become one. It is not possible for them to become one, because each original element is immiscible (tankotkirna) by its inherent nature. They only remain in the form of a mixture in the past, present, and future.

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  • tanmay (તન્મય)

    engrossed

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  • tanmayakaar (તન્મયાકાર)

    engrossed; to become one with the body and mind; refers to when the ego becomes engrossed with the body-mind complex

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  • tant (તંત)

    Connection; thread; link

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  • tantili (તંતીલી)

    Associated with a link of abhorrence or grudge

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  • tantili vani (તંતીલી વાણી)

    Speech associated with lingering effect; speech with the link of continual hurt

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  • tanto (તાંતો)

    a lingering link; a grudge; lingering effect; inner link; intense mental note; grudge that continues to be linked with a conflict

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  • tapa (તપ)

    Penance

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  • tapobal (તપોબળ)

    efficacy of penance; power of penance

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  • tarantaaran (તરણતારણ)

    One who has crossed the ocean of the worldly life and can help others across as well; one who has become liberated and can liberate others

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  • tarantaaranhar (તરણતારણહાર)

    One who has become liberated and can liberate others

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  • tarapanu (તારાપણું)

    the real Self

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  • tarchhod (તરછોડ)

    Intense contempt; dismissing with contempt; contemptuous rejection

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  • tatastha bhaav (તટસ્થ ભાવ)

    an impartial view

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  • uchch gotra (ઉચ્ચ ગોત્ર)

    noble status

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  • udaseen (ઉદાસીન)

    Indifferent; having no interest; detached

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  • udaseen bhaav (ઉદાસીન ભાવ)

    state of non-involvement; a state of indifference towards the relative; state of neutrality towards the relative; a state of neutrality

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  • udaseenta (ઉદાસીનતા)

    Apathy; detachment; indifference; a state of relative neutrality

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  • uday (ઉદય)

    Unfolding; coming into effect; fruition

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  • uday swaroop (ઉદય સ્વરૂપ)

    State of unfolding karma

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  • udayadhin (ઉદયાધીન)

    Subject to the unfolding of karma

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  • udaybhaav (ઉદયભાવ)

    Unfolding of intent in discharge; discharge intent

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  • udaykarma (ઉદયકર્મ)

    Unfolding karma

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  • udayvash (ઉદયવશ)

    Subject to the unfolding of karma

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  • uddirana (ઉદ્દીરણા)

    the process of bringing karma to maturity prior to their set time of maturity

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  • udveg (ઉદ્વેગ)

    Emotional agitation; intense emotional upheaval with overt clash; extreme emotion

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  • ugra (ઉગ્ર)

    discharge anger

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  • ugra parmanu (ઉગ્ર પરમાણુ)

    parmanu colored with the intent of anger

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  • ukel (ઉકેલ)

    Solution; closure

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  • unmattata (ઉન્મત્તતા)

    the intoxication of pride for accomplishing something; swelling (with pride); intoxicated (with pride)

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  • unodari (ઉણોદરી)

    Practice of under-eating; practice of eating less than what the stomach demands

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  • unodari tapa (ઉણોદરી તપ)

    The penance of eating less than what the stomach demands

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  • upadaan (ઉપાદાન)

    spiritual readiness; receptivity; qualification; spiritual development; level of spiritual development

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  • upadeya (ઉપાદેય)

    Worth acquiring; acceptable

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  • upadhi (ઉપાધિ)

    an externally induced problem and its resultant suffering; affliction from external sources

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  • upadhi swabhaav (ઉપાધિ સ્વભાવ)

    the tendency to assume that which has been induced externally to be One’s own state

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  • upadhi swaroop (ઉપાધિ સ્વરૂપ)

    to become the form as the sufferer

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  • upadhibhaav (ઉપાધિભાવ)

    the belief of ‘I am the sufferer’; to believe ‘I am the sufferer’ of the effects arising in another entity; to believe that which is happening to another entity to be happening to oneself

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  • vaaran (વારણ)

    Protective restraint within

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  • vaasna (વાસના)

    Subtle desires; latent tendencies; intense desire; desire for worldly pleasures

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  • vaatchit no prayog (વાતચીતનો પ્રયોગ)

    experiment of conversing with file number one

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  • vachanbal (વચનબળ)

    the power of one’s words; the power of speech

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  • vachanyoga (વચનયોગ)

    Union with words that are spoken (‘I am speaking’)

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  • vairaag (વૈરાગ)

    Indifference or aversion towards worldly pleasure; a state of apathy and alienation of affection for the world and worldly life; dispassion for worldly life. Also referred to as vairagya.

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  • vairaagi (વૈરાગી)

    One with vairaag, or dispassion

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  • vairaagya (વૈરાગ્ય)

    Indifference or aversion towards worldly pleasure; a state of apathy and alienation of affection for the world and worldly life; dispassion for worldly life. Also referred to as vairaag.

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  • Vaishnav pudgal bhaav (વૈષ્ણવ પુદ્‌ગલ ભાવ)

    the belief that ‘I am a Vaishnav’

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  • vakragati (વક્રગતિ)

    transmigration of the soul from human life-form to any of the four life-forms

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  • vaktavya (વક્તવ્ય)

    expressible in words; can be expressed in words

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  • vanaspatikaya (વનસ્પતિકાય)

    one sensed, non-mobile or immobile living beings whose body is in the form of vegetation

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  • vandho-vachako (વાંધો-વચકો)

    Objection and its reaction

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  • vani (વાણી)

    Speech

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  • Vanik (વણિક)

    member of the merchant caste in the traditional Indian caste system; those who make a living through their speech and intellect

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  • vartaman yog (વર્તમાનયોગ)

    to be in the present

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  • vartan (વર્તન)

    external conduct; behavior

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  • vartan moha (વર્તન મોહ)

    discharging illusory attachment. Also known as charitra moha.

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  • vartavu (વર્તવું)

    to prevail

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  • vash (વશ)

    yielded to; under the control of; subdued; obedient; succumb, given in; submit; surrender

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  • vastu (વસ્તુ)

    the Self; eternal element; one of the six indestructible, eternal elements. It has dravya (matter), guna (property), and paryay (phases). Also means thing, article, entity (in the ordinary, commonplace context).

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  • vastu swaroop (વસ્તુ સ્વરૂપ)

    in elemental form; the Real form of the Self

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  • vastutva (વસ્તુત્ત્વ)

    [In reference to the Self:] Knowledge of ‘who am I’; the Knowledge about what the Self is and what It is not; [In reference to all six eternal elements:] what an eternal element is and what it comprises of

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  • vastutva no bhaav (વસ્તુત્વનો ભાવ)

    the intent as the Self

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  • Yaksha dev (યક્ષ દેવ)

    male guardian deity of the Tirthankar Lord

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  • Yakshini devi (યક્ષિણી દેવી)

    Female guardian deity of the Tirthankar Lord

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  • yam (યમ)

    Self-control or self-restraint; begins from the time the desire to come into a discipline arises; coming into self-restraint

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  • Yamaraj (યમરાજ)

    mythological god of death. Also known as Jamaraj, Jamara and Jamaraja.

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  • yashnaam karma (યશનામ કર્મ)

    credit bearing name-form karma

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  • yatharth Gnan (યથાર્થ જ્ઞાન)

    exact Gnan

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  • yatna dasha (યત્ન દશા)

    a state of partial exertion-effort; a state of partial doership which arises due to lack of awakened awareness

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  • yog (યોગ)

    Union; to join. Also refers to the science of unified movement/progress of mind-speech-body towards a higher goal.

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  • yogbal (યોગબળ)

    power acquired through yoga; unified energy of the mind, speech and body

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  • Yogeshwar (યોગેશ્વર)

    The absolute Self; Lord Krishna in His absolute form

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  • yogi (યોગી)

    Those who practice traditional disciplines and methods to attain the higher state; one who practices yoga

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  • yogi purush (યોગી પુરુષ)

    Those who practice traditional disciplines and methods to attain the higher state; one who practices yoga

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  • yogkshem (યોગક્ષેમ)

    Safety and proficiency; prosperity; activities necessary for making a livelihood

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